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WATER-SOLUBLE POLYHYDROXYLENE FULLERENES (FULLERENOLS) C60(OH)n.

FIELD OF APPLICATION 

Electrochemical deposition of Nanocarbon film on conductive materials

Polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60(OH)n form solutions in some alcohols capable, in an electrochemical process, to precipitate in the form of the nanocarbon film on the anode. The objective of this research is to disclose the method of nanocarbon film obtaining on metals, graphite, carbon fabric, as alternative to the existing methods. Existing methods for nanocarbon film production are expensive and energy-consuming.

Fullerenol C60(OH)n

Fig. 1 Polyhydroxylated fullerenes, water-soluble
Synonym: C60(OH)n, Fullerenols, Polyhydroxy
fullerenes, water-soluble C60

Empirical Formula C60(OH)n

The nanocarbon film is a biocompatible coating, inert to biological objects and promoting the integration of non-biological objects into body tissues. Applying a carbon film of nanometer thickness to prostheses implanted into the bloodstream (valves, stents) reduces the adhesion of blood proteins and platelets on them and reduces the risk of blood clots in a patient.

By this method, nanocarbon film has been deposited on a plate of copper brand MM1 (Fig. 3), on a plate of aluminum brand AD31 (Fig. 4), on a plate of stainless steel brand X2CrNi12 (Fig. 5) and on electrical graphite (Fig. 6) . On the Fig. 7 is a snapshot of a nanostructured carbon film taken with an atomic-force microscope ASM.


2
Fig. 2
3
Fig. 3
4
Fig. 4
Графит
Fig. 5
АСМ
Fig. 6

Nanocarbon coating is applied electrochemically using standard galvanic equipment. The resulting coating is characterized by high hardness, low friction coefficient, biological inertness and chemical resistance, low adhesion of various contaminants to its surface.

Scheme En

The areas of application of this coating are as following: the coating of medical products, metal-cutting tools, friction pairs, non-stick coatings for housewares, etc. However, considering the fact that the cost of the coating is significantly lower than that of similar coatings applied by traditional methods, its application areas can be significantly more extensive. The coating can be applied to a wide range of metallic and non-metallic materials (graphite, carbon fabric), using the same electrolyte, but with different current ratings.

The technology is wasteless, and the total producing cost of coating, including the cost of the electrolyte is significantly less than the cost of carbon coatings with similar properties applied by other methods.

Their use in endoprosthetics and osteosynthesis may be one of the promising areas of application of these technologies. Stels technology may be another area of application, since according to some researchers, a Nanocarbon film partially absorbs electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range.

There are following examples of products for endoprosthetics and osteosynthesis with applied nanocarbon coating:


Пластины для остеосинтеза
6
7
Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9
Plates for osteosynthesis
with applied Nanocarbon coating

The head of the hip joint endoprosthesis of the company "CJSC Track-E Composite" without Nanocarbon coating The head of the hip joint endoprosthesis  with applied Nanocarbon coating. The coating is made in the STC "Nanocluster".
The color of the nanocarbon coating: from golden to brown.
The thickness of the film 3-5 μ. The micro-hardness of the film 9500-10500 MPa

The technology of electrochemical deposition of nanocarbon films from anhydrous electrolytes was developed at NTC Nanocluster back in 2002-2003. Patent RU 2519438 Electrochemical deposition of Nanostructured  film of carbon on conductive materials, Kozeev A.A. has been issued on the electrochemical deposition of Nanocarbon film on conductive materials. Priority: dated November 23, 2012 и от 18.10.2012

 PATENT RU 2519438


  The company Implantcast: www.implantcast.de and its Russian subsidiary: www.implantcast-rus.com,  produce a wide range of implants and endoprostheses, including the hip joint endoprosthesis with a head made of titanium alloy TiAl6V4 with titanium nitride coating TiN (see Fig. 11 ).
    \
     The company's website has an announcement of titanium nitride coating TiN: "TiN is a hard coating of golden color.  Coatings of this kind have been used for more than 30 years to improve the wear resistance of tools. In medicine, the coating is used with a thickness of several micrometers. The biocompatibility of this coating has been proven by a number of scientific studies with very positive results. This excellent biocompatibility is achieved due to the very strong combination of titanium and nitrogen. TiN coating is actually very hard coating, and therefore, it has a high resistant to the effects of the chemical environment. Namely, this quality was one of the decisive factors for this coating to be used in medicine."

    
     However, according to some independent researchers, such a coating of titanium nitride TiN is destroyed and washed away from the product under the influence of hydrogen peroxide. It is possible to argue and say from where in living tissue hydrogen peroxide can appear, at least, in the concentration at which the titanium-nitride coating will deteriorate? Thus, the resistance of the titanium-nitride coating to the effects of the chemical environment is relative. And, if hydrogen peroxide can do it, then probably, some enzymes or other biological components of living tissue can do it too.

   
    For comparison:
nanocarbon coating is characterized by high hardness, low friction coefficient, biological inertness, low adhesion of various contaminants to its surface and chemical resistance, including hydrogen peroxide.



hip-prosthesis-ball-and-socket-component
Fig. 10
Тотальный эндопротез тазобедренного сустава компании Implantcast с головкой из титанового сплава TiAl6V4 с  покрытием из нитрида титана TiN
Orthopedic clinic Gelenk-Klinik, Germany ortoped-klinik.com


Sertificat

You are welcome to contact STC "Nanocluster" info@nanoclaster.ru regarding cooperation in the issues of electrochemical deposition of Nanocarbon film on metallic and on other conductive materials.

Polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60(OH)n are antidotes at poisoning with heavy metals

            It was found that polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60 (OH) n (n> 40) are the potent chelating agent capable of binding practically any metal ions, except alkali metals, into water-insoluble complexes. There is a definition of chelation in the literature: "Chelation is the binding of heavy metals with the help of special preparations, as a result of which the heavy metal is eliminated from the body in the natural way".

Polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60(OH)n may be an effective antidote in case of oral poisoning with heavy metals, and, presumably, radioactive, including lanthanides and actinides. Unlike soluble salts of heavy metals, which are strong poisons, insoluble salts of these metals are completely harmless. For example, soluble barium chloride BaCl2 is a dangerous poison, but insoluble barium sulfate BaSO4 is not only absolutely harmless, but is also used in radiology as a contrast agent.

Dozens of different salts and oxides of various metals were added to solutions of fullerenol in distilled water: Pb, Zn, Hg, Sn, Fe, Cr, Mo. Cu and others, and, in all cases, metal ions with fullerenol form an absolutely water-insoluble complex.

The formation of an insoluble complex occurs according to the scheme:

Osagdenie Cx(OH)n ionami Ме

For simplicity, the scheme shows only one pair of hydroxyl groups, and, in fact, there are 12-30 pairs of them.

In the literature on chemistry, you can find information that, ortho-diphenols can form insoluble complexes with some metal ions, which are chelated essentially, for example:

схема-002

This scheme is absolutely similar to the scheme with fullerenol, which in its chemical essence is a polyphenol with a fullerene core, and in which, there will always be a pair of hydroxyl groups in the ortho-position. Hydroxyl groups in the ortho-position are the “claws” of the chelating agent. Thus, one molecule of polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60(OH)n  can bind a water-insoluble complex of 12-30 metal ions (except alkali).

The reaction of fullerenol with metal ions takes place at room temperature and begins immediately after the addition of a solution of a salt of a metal or oxide, and ends within 10-20 minutes. Then, the process of separation of the solution into a brown absolutely insoluble precipitate and the water layer occurs. With an excess of fullerenol, the water layer may be colored yellow due to the presence of fullerenol. However, this excess is not only not dangerous, but, even, it is pharmacologically useful, since fullerenol does not possess cytotoxicity, but is an antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and antitumor drug. There are thousands of publications on the pharmacological properties of fullerenol in the Internet and literature. 

Toxicologists can verify experimentally the accuracy of the provided information.

Other possible applications of water-soluble polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) C60(OH)n :

Pharmaceutics and cosmetology
•    Antiviral medicine without cytotoxicity;
•    Antioxidants, comparable to fullerenes under their effectiveness;
•    Wound and burn healing medicine.

Materials science
•    Modifiers of polymers, resins, glues, paint-and-lacquer and other materials;
•    Modifiers of materials on base of silicate binding agents, including concretes;
•    Component of electrolytes for metal galvanic coatings;
•    Component of ultra-hard composite materials with metal matrix.

Agroindustry – plant cultivation and animal husbandry
•    Plant growth stimulants;
•    Antiviral and antimycotic agents;
•    Preparations, which increase stability of crops by complex nonspecific action;
•    Additives to fodders, which increase resistibility of agricultural animals and birds to different diseases, and which do not accumulate in their organ
ism.

LIST OF LITERATURE

1.Kozeyev A.A. Deposizione elettrochimica di film Nanocarbon su materiali conduttivi. Italian Science Review. 2014; 10(19). PP. 221-223.
Available at URL: http://www.ias-journal.org/archive/2014/october/Kozeyev.pdf

2.Козеев А.А. «Электрохимическое осаждение наноуглеродной пленки на токопроводящих материалах», Нанотехнологическое Общество России http://rusnor.org/pubs/articles/11275.htm

3.Козеев А.А. «Электрохимическое осаждение наноуглеродной пленки на токопроводящих материалах», RUSNANONET http://rusnanonet.ru/articles/103350/

4.Козеев А.А. «Электрохимическое осаждение наноуглеродной пленки на токопроводящих материалах», Межотраслевой институт «Наука и образование» VII, 2014 http://scienceanded.ru/files/Arhiv/27-30.12.2014/scienceanded_7.pdf#page=7

5. Patent RU 2519438. Electrochemical deposition of Nanostructured  film of carbon on conductive materials, Kozeev A.A. Priority: dated November 23, 2012 и от 18.10.2012


E-mail: alex.kozex@yandex.ru  или   info@nanoclaster.ru

Web-site: www.nanoclaster.ru

Телефон: +7 912 210 67 55